The Enduring Legacy of St. Aftimios Ofiesh: True Orthodoxy's Beacon

By I. Butakov
St. Archbishop Aftimios Ofiesh
Official Icon in the United Roman-Ruthenian Church

St. Aftimios Ofiesh is a name that resonates with controversy and reverence in the annals of Orthodox Christianity. As the successor to St. Raphael of Brooklyn, St. Aftimios was poised to continue a legacy of faith and dedication within the Syrian-Russian Orthodox community in North America and stands as one of the most intriguing figures in Orthodox history. However, his tenure as an Orthodox patriarch was marked by significant challenges and disputes that have led many to malign his contributions to this day, largely due to misunderstandings and self-righteous resistance from other Orthodox leaders. Despite these controversies, an examination of his life and actions reveals a steadfast commitment to authentic Orthodoxy and true Christian spirit.

Orthodox Spirit Amidst Adversity

Despite facing significant opposition, St. Aftimios remained steadfast in his commitment to authentic Orthodoxy and the true Christian spirit. His dedication was evident in his pastoral care, theological contributions, and efforts to establish a united Orthodox Church that transcended ethnic and national divisions. 

The backlash against St. Aftimios was swift and severe, coming not only from within his own jurisdiction but also from other Orthodox Churches globally. Critics accused him of abandoning traditional Orthodoxy for personal gain and innovation for its own sake—charges that were both unfair and unfounded. Despite these accusations, those who closely studied his works would find a man deeply committed to the core principles of Orthodoxy; love, unity, and faithfulness to Christ’s teachings above cultural or nationalistic divisions and above jurisdictional snobbery.

Discrimination against a Married Archbishop

St. Aftimios also faced discrimination due to his marital status as an archbishop. However, it is important to understand that his marriage was not inconsistent with Orthodox Christianity but rather a matter of jurisdictional discipline. While doctrine represents core theological beliefs that are unchangeable, discipline refers to rules and practices that can vary across jurisdictions. In some Orthodox jurisdictions, celibacy is required for bishops and some priests, while others permit or even encourage marriage among clergy members. St. Aftimios's decision to marry falls within the latter category, making it a matter of jurisdictional discipline rather than a doctrinal violation.

St. Aftimios and his wife, Mariam

Despite facing prejudice and criticism additionally for his marriage, St. Aftimios remained steadfast in his beliefs and practices. He firmly believed that marriage did not diminish his commitment to the Orthodox faith or compromise his spiritual authority as an archbishop. Indeed, he felt it enhanced it, and he promoted and authorized a married episcopate.  This courageous stance challenged artificial norms and forced people to question their assumptions about married clergy.

St. Aftimios's refusal to conform to discriminatory expectations demonstrates his commitment to authenticity and staying true to both his personal convictions and Orthodox tradition. His actions remind us that the true essence of the Orthodox faith lies in love, compassion, and understanding in the example of Christ.

The Legacy Lives On

The impact of St. Aftimios’s work is still felt today across several jurisdictions that hold apostolic succession from him. These communities continue to embody his vision of a unified Orthodoxy—free from ethnic barriers and open to all believers. Among the most prominent of these is the United Roman-Ruthenian Church, embracing its Orthodox and Catholic heritage; preserving its own ethnic heritage while breaking down barriers and being open to everyone in the spirit of Christ. 

A Misunderstood Shepherd

While many contemporary Orthodox leaders still view St. Aftimios with skepticism, perhaps out of jealousy or jurisdictional power games to which even the Church has never been immune, it is essential to recognize his pioneering role in shaping traditional Orthodoxy in the modern era. His actions were not those of division but rather attempts at reshaping the church to be more inclusive in the example of Christ. And, it is crucial to recognize the positive impact he has had on modern Orthodoxy—especially in North America.

Several jurisdictions descended from St. Aftimios bear testament to his lasting influence on the landscape of global Orthodoxy. These communities embody his vision for an authentically inclusive Church, transcending barriers, and remaining faithful to traditional doctrines. The ancient apostolic succession emanating from St. Aftimios is an unbroken chain that not only validates his own ecclesiastical authority, but also underscores the authenticity of his successors' faith and practices.

Reevaluating A Legacy

In spite of being maligned by some contemporaries and successors alike, St. Aftimios's authentic approach to Orthodoxy continues to inspire many believers across different jurisdictions worldwide. His life reminds us that genuine spiritual leadership often requires making difficult decisions that might not be fully understood or appreciated by one’s peers or even by generations immediately following them.

In reevaluating the legacy of St. Aftimios, it becomes clear that his contributions cannot be dismissed merely as controversial decisions made during tumultuous times. He was much more than a controversial figure; he was a divinely-inspired visionary who sought to bring genuine unity and spiritual depth to the Orthodox Church. His work should be seen as courageous steps towards realizing a vision of an orthodox Church truly universal (and indeed Catholic in its most true sense) in its embrace yet steadfast in its adherence to ancient truths—a mission undoubtedly relevant today as it was during his lifetime.  Despite opposition, his legacy, the very legacy preserved by the United Roman-Ruthenian Church, continues to inspire those who value true orthodoxy and Christian fellowship.

Orthodoxy and Catholicism

Q: Are you an Orthodox Church if you are not affiliated with churches such as the Eastern Orthodox Church (Greek Church)?  

Because it is our faith and heritage. Not all Orthodox churches are in communion with each other. While they share a common faith and belief system, there are some that remain independent entities. Orthodox Christianity is comprised of various churches, each with its own hierarchy and jurisdiction. These churches can be categorized into two main groups: those in communion with each other and those that are not.

The Eastern Orthodox Church (officially the Orthodox Catholic Church), for example, consists of multiple autocephalous (self-governing) churches. These include the Greek Orthodox Church, Russian Orthodox Church, Serbian Orthodox Church, and many others. They are united in their faith and share a common liturgical tradition but have independent leadership structures.

On the other hand, there are also independent orthodox churches (such as the United Roman-Ruthenian Church) that do not participate in the broader communion of orthodox churches. These churches may have historical or theological reasons for remaining separate from the mainstream orthodox community. While these independent orthodox churches may differ in terms of governance or specific practices, they still hold true to the core beliefs of Orthodoxy. They maintain sacraments such as baptism and holy communion and adhere to fundamental doctrines such as the Holy Trinity and veneration of saints.

It is important to understand that not all orthodox churches are in communion with each other. Some choose to remain independent due to historical factors or specific circumstances. Nonetheless, despite these differences, all orthodox churches share a common faith rooted in ancient Christian traditions.

Q: Are you a Catholic Church if you are not affiliated with the Roman Communion/Vatican Church?  

Likewise because it is our faith and heritage. When we think of the Catholic Church, we often envision a unified global institution under the guidance of the Roman Pope and the Vatican. However, it's important to note that not all Catholic churches are in communion with each other, or are even under the jurisdiction of the Roman Pope.

The term "Catholic" itself means universal, but there are various branches and independent churches within Catholicism. These variations stem from historical, theological, and cultural differences. One significant example is the Eastern Orthodox Church. While sharing many similarities with Roman Catholicism, including sacraments and apostolic succession, the Eastern Orthodox Church operates independently from Rome. It has its own hierarchy of bishops and does not recognize the authority of the Roman Pope. Also, the Eastern Orthodox Church's official name is the Orthodox Catholic Church.

Other examples include the Old Catholic Churches and the Old Roman Catholic Churches. The reasons for these divisions can be complex and multifaceted. They may arise from theological disagreements, cultural distinctiveness, historical events such as political conflicts or regional disputes. Regardless of their differences, these churches share a common belief in core Catholic teachings such as the sacraments and apostolic succession.

The United Roman-Ruthenian Church descends from Old Catholic and Old Roman Catholic Churches, as well as Eastern Orthodoxy and other Orthodox Churches.

Understanding these variations within Catholicism is crucial for fostering dialogue and respecting diversity within Christianity. It reminds us that while unity is an ideal goal among believers, differences can coexist peacefully within a broader faith tradition.
In conclusion, not all Catholic churches are in communion with each other or with the Vatican. Variations exist due to historical, theological, and cultural factors. Recognizing these distinctions helps promote understanding and appreciation for diversity within Catholicism while embracing shared beliefs at its core

United Roman-Ruthenian Church: Where Ancient Traditions Unite in Harmony

The United Roman-Ruthenian Church: A Symbol of Unity and Tradition

Where Ancient Traditions Unite in Harmony

The United Roman-Ruthenian Church is a unique and diverse autocephalous (independent) religious institution that brings together two distinct Christian traditions – Orthodoxy and Catholicism. This unification has not only fostered a sense of Christian brotherhood among its followers but has also created an environment where ancient traditions and cultures coexist harmoniously.

The origins of the United Roman-Ruthenian Church can be traced back to the very beginning of Christianity; to Rome, to Byzantium, Syria, and India, and to Eastern Europe. The result today is a distinct branch of Christianity that is both Eastern and Latin, Orthodox and Catholic.

One of the notable aspects of this union is the preservation of both traditions within the liturgy. The United Roman-Ruthenian Church incorporates elements from Latin, Byzantine, and Syrian spirituality, ensuring that followers can engage with their faith in a way that is meaningful to them. The Eucharistic celebration, for example, includes elements such as incense, icons, and chant, which are essential components of Byzantine worship. By embracing elements from both traditions, this church offers a vibrant worship experience that resonates with people from diverse backgrounds.

What makes the United Roman-Ruthenian Church truly remarkable is that it allows for cultural diversity within its congregations, fostering a sense of belonging among its followers while acknowledging their distinct cultural backgrounds. By bringing together two different Christian traditions, the United Roman-Ruthenian Church promotes dialogue and understanding between various branches of Christianity. It serves as an example of how different traditions can come together in pursuit of a common goal - traditional worship and the timeless faith of the Holy Gospels.

The Church's commitment to unity extends beyond its services. It actively promotes interfaith dialogue, fostering understanding and respect among different religions. Through this outreach, the United Roman-Ruthenian Church has become a symbol of hope for those seeking peace and harmony in their communities.

Furthermore, the Church plays an integral role in preserving cultural heritage. Its designs, traditions, and customs showcase stunning blends of Western European Gothic and Baroque influences with intricate Byzantine and Russian designs, creating awe-inspiring experiences. The Church's traditional art tells stories passed down through generations, connecting present-day worshippers with their ancestors' rich cultural tapestry.

The United Roman-Ruthenian Church stands as a testament to unity with diversity in an era of division. Through its incorporation of Latin, Byzantine, Eastern European, and Syrian traditions, it provides a space where followers can engage with their faith in a meaningful way. This union not only preserves the rich cultural heritage of its congregations but also promotes dialogue and understanding among different Christian traditions.With its rich history and unwavering commitment to faith, this church serves as a beacon of hope, inspiring countless individuals across generations.

For those who seek solace in times of hardship or seek guidance on their spiritual journey, the United Roman-Ruthenian Church offers steadfast support. The members of its clergy are known for their compassion, wisdom, and dedication to helping others navigate life's challenges. The United Roman-Ruthenian Church's ability to bridge religious divides, preserve cultural heritage, and provide spiritual guidance makes it a cherished institution.

Want to get involved? Email us here.

Would you like more detailed history? We invite you to keep reading by following this link!

100th Birthday of Peter II of Yugoslavia

 6 September 2023

100th Birthday of King Peter II of Yugoslavia
founder of the Knight Bachelor of Yugoslavia
and founder of the Yugoslavian Order of St. John (Order of Hospitaller Knights)
in continuation of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem of Russia under Tsar Paul I

King Peter died in 1970 in Colorado at the young age of 47.
He was buried in the Serbia Orthodox Monastery of St. Sava in Illinois,
and in 2013, his remains were moved to Serbia. 

The United Roman-Ruthenian Church is a successor to valued and treasured parts of the King's legacy. Find out more on the following pages: 

Temporal Succession of the United Roman-Ruthenian Church

Temporal Succession from St. Peter the Apostle
1. St. Peter (32-67)
2. St. Linus (67-76)
3. St. Anacletus (Cletus) (76-88)
4. St. Clement I (88-97)
5. St. Evaristus (97-105)
6. St. Alexander I (105-115)
7. St. Sixtus I (115-125) Also called Xystus I
8. St. Telesphorus (125-136)
9. St. Hyginus (136-140)
10. St. Pius I (140-155)
11. St. Anicetus (155-166)
12. St. Soter (166-175)
13. St. Eleutherius (175-189)
14. St. Victor I (189-199)
15. St. Zephyrinus (199-217)
16. St. Callistus I (217-22)
17. St. Urban I (222-30)
18. St. Pontian (230-35)
19. St. Anterus (235-36)
20. St. Fabian (236-50)
21. St. Cornelius (251-53)
22. St. Lucius I (253-54)
23. St. Stephen I (254-257)
24. St. Sixtus II (257-258)
25. St. Dionysius (260-268)
26. St. Felix I (269-274)
27. St. Eutychian (275-283)
28. St. Caius (283-296)
29. St. Marcellinus (296-304)
30. St. Marcellus I (308-309)
31. St. Eusebius (309 or 310)
32. St. Miltiades (311-14)
33. St. Sylvester I (314-35)
34. St. Marcus (336)
35. St. Julius I (337-52)
36. Liberius (352-66)
37. St. Damasus I (366-84)
38. St. Siricius (384-99)
39. St. Anastasius I (399-401)
40. St. Innocent I (401-17)
41. St. Zosimus (417-18)
42. St. Boniface I (418-22)
43. St. Celestine I (422-32)
44. St. Sixtus III (432-40)
45. St. Leo I (the Great) (440-61)
46. St. Hilarius (461-68)
47. St. Simplicius (468-83)
48. St. Felix III (II) (483-92)
49. St. Gelasius I (492-96)
50. Anastasius II (496-98)
51. St. Symmachus (498-514)
52. St. Hormisdas (514-23)
53. St. John I (523-26)
54. St. Felix IV (III) (526-30)
55. Boniface II (530-32)
56. John II (533-35)
57. St. Agapetus I (535-36)
58. St. Silverius (536-37)
59. Vigilius (537-55)
60. Pelagius I (556-61)
61. John III (561-74)
62. Benedict I (575-79)
63. Pelagius II (579-90)
64. St. Gregory I (the Great) (590-604)
65. Sabinian (604-606)
66. Boniface III (607)
67. St. Boniface IV (608-15)
68. St. Deusdedit (Adeodatus I) (615-18)
69. Boniface V (619-25)
70. Honorius I (625-38)
71. Severinus (640)
72. John IV (640-42)
73. Theodore I (642-49)
74. St. Martin I (649-55)
75. St. Eugene I (655-57)
76. St. Vitalian (657-72)
77. Adeodatus (II) (672-76)
78. Donus (676-78)
79. St. Agatho (678-81)
80. St. Leo II (682-83)
81. St. Benedict II (684-85)
82. John V (685-86)
83. Conon (686-87)
84. St. Sergius I (687-701)
85. John VI (701-05)
86. John VII (705-07)
87. Sisinnius (708)
88. Constantine (708-15)
89. St. Gregory II (715-31)
90. St. Gregory III (731-41)
91. St. Zachary (741-52)
92. Stephen II (III) (752-57)
93. St. Paul I (757-67)
94. Stephen III (IV) (767-72)
95. Adrian I (772-95)
96. St. Leo III (795-816)
97. Stephen IV (V) (816-17)
98. St. Paschal I (817-24)
99. Eugene II (824-27)
100. Valentine (827)
101. Gregory IV (827-44)
102. Sergius II (844-47)
103. St. Leo IV (847-55)
104. Benedict III (855-58)
105. St. Nicholas I (the Great) (858-67)
106. Adrian II (867-72)
107. John VIII (872-82)
108. Marinus I (882-84)
109. St. Adrian III (884-85)
110. Stephen V (VI) (885-91)
111. Formosus (891-96)
112. Boniface VI (896)
113. Stephen VI (VII) (896-97)
114. Romanus (897)
115. Theodore II (897)
116. John IX (898-900)
117. Benedict IV (900-03)
118. Leo V (903)
119. Sergius III (904-11)
120. Anastasius III (911-13)
121. Lando (913-14)
122. John X (914-28)
123. Leo VI (928)
124. Stephen VIII (929-31)
125. John XI (931-35)
126. Leo VII (936-39)
127. Stephen IX (939-42)
128. Marinus II (942-46)
129. Agapetus II (946-55)
130. John XII (955-63)
131. Leo VIII (963-64)
132. Benedict V (964)
133. John XIII (965-72)
134. Benedict VI (973-74)
135. Benedict VII (974-83)
136. John XIV (983-84)
137. John XV (985-96)
138. Gregory V (996-99)
139. Sylvester II (999-1003)
140. John XVII (1003)
141. John XVIII (1003-09)
142. Sergius IV (1009-12)
143. Benedict VIII (1012-24)
144. John XIX (1024-32)
145. Benedict IX (1032-45)
146. Sylvester III (1045)
147. Benedict IX (1045)
148. Gregory VI (1045-46)
149. Clement II (1046-47)
150. Benedict IX (1047-48)
151. Damasus II (1048)
152. St. Leo IX (1049-54)
153. Victor II (1055-57)
154. Stephen X (1057-58)
155. Nicholas II (1058-61)
156. Alexander II (1061-73)
157. St. Gregory VII (1073-85)
158. Blessed Victor III (1086-87)
159. Blessed Urban II (1088-99)
160. Paschal II (1099-1118)
161. Gelasius II (1118-19)
162. Callistus II (1119-24)
163. Honorius II (1124-30)
164. Innocent II (1130-43)
165. Celestine II (1143-44)
166. Lucius II (1144-45)
167. Blessed Eugene III (1145-53)
168. Anastasius IV (1153-54)
169. Adrian IV (1154-59)
170. Alexander III (1159-81)
171. Lucius III (1181-85)
172. Urban III (1185-87)
173. Gregory VIII (1187)
174. Clement III (1187-91)
175. Celestine III (1191-98)
176. Innocent III (1198-1216)
177. Honorius III (1216-27)
178. Gregory IX (1227-41)
179. Celestine IV (1241)
180. Innocent IV (1243-54)
181. Alexander IV (1254-61)
182. Urban IV (1261-64)
183. Clement IV (1265-68)
184. Blessed Gregory X (1271-76)
185. Blessed Innocent V (1276)
186. Adrian V (1276)
187. John XXI (1276-77)
188. Nicholas III (1277-80)
189. Martin IV (1281-85)
190. Honorius IV (1285-87)
191. Nicholas IV (1288-92)
192. St. Celestine V (1294)
193. Boniface VIII (1294-1303)
194. Blessed Benedict XI (1303-04)
195. Clement V (1305-14)
196. John XXII (1316-34)
197. Benedict XII (1334-42)
198. Clement VI (1342-52)
199. Innocent VI (1352-62)
200. Blessed Urban V (1362-70)
201. Gregory XI (1370-78)
202. Urban VI (1378-89)
203. Boniface IX (1389-1404)
204. Innocent VII (1404-06)
205. Gregory XII (1406-15)
206. Martin V (1417-31)
207. Eugene IV (1431-47)
208. Nicholas V (1447-55)
209. Callistus III (1455-58)
210. Pius II (1458-64)
211. Paul II (1464-71)
212. Sixtus IV (1471-84)
213. Innocent VIII (1484-92)
214. Alexander VI (1492-1503)
215. Pius III (1503)
216. St. Julius II (1503-13)
217. St. Leo X (1513-21)
218. Adrian VI (1522-23)
219. Clement VII (1523-34)
220. Paul III (1534-49)
221. Julius III (1550-55)
222. Marcellus II (1555)
223. Paul IV (1555-59)
224. Pius IV (1559-65)
225. St. Pius V (1566-72)
226. Gregory XIII (1572-85)
227. Sixtus V (1585-90)
228. Urban VII (1590)
229. Gregory XIV (1590-91)
230. Innocent IX (1591)
231. Clement VIII (1592-1605)
232. Leo XI (1605)
233. Paul V (1605-21)
234. Gregory XV (1621-23)
235. Urban VIII (1623-44)
236. Innocent X (1644-55)
237. Alexander VII (1655-67)
238. Clement IX (1667-69)
239. Clement X (1670-76)
240. Blessed Innocent XI (1676-89)
241. Alexander VIII (1689-91)
242. Innocent XII (1691-1700)
243. Clement XI (1700-21)
244. Innocent XIII (1721-24)
245. Benedict XIII (1724-30)
246. Clement XII (1730-40)
247. Benedict XIV (1740-58)
248. Clement XIII (1758-69)
249. Clement XIV (1769-74)
250. Pius VI (1775-99)
251. Pius VII (1800-23)
252. Leo XII (1823-29)
253. Pius VIII (1829-30)
254. Gregory XVI (1831-46)
255. St. Pius IX (1846-78)
256. Leo XIII (1878-1903)
257. St. Pius X (1903-14)
258. Benedict XV (1914-22)
259. Pius XI (1922-39)
260. St. Pius XII (1939-58)
261. St. John XXIII (1958-63)
262. Paul VI (1963-78)
263. John Paul I (1978)
264. St. John Paul II (1978-2005)
265. Benedict XVI (2005-2013)
266. Rutherford I (2011 - )

Temporal Succession from Hugh, King of Italy

Hugh d'Arles, King of Italy in the Holy Roman Empire
Bosone d'Arles, Margrave of Tuscany * Brother of Hugh, King of Italy.
Umberto d'Arles, Margrave of Tuscany * Son of Hugh, King of Italy
Hugh d'Arles, Margrave of Tuscany
Boniface III di Canossa, Margrave of Tuscany * Grandson of Hugh, King of Italy
Federico di Canossa, Margrave of Tuscany
Matilda di Canossa, Margravine of Tuscany, Vice-Queen of Italy in the Holy Roman Empire * Daughter of Boniface III of Tuscany and Beatrice of Lorraine and Bar. Titles and lands were gifted to the church upon her death without issue, thus initiating the ecclesiastical temporal claims associated with Tuscany. Though the Popes had claim of sovereignty over Italy as Imperial Vice-King, they exercised this as Pope and Ecclesiastical Overlord of Italy.
Papa Paschal II

Temporal Succession of the Holy Church from the Roman Empire

Gaius Julius Caesar
Augustus (Imperator Caesar Augustus)
Tiberius (Tiberius Caesar Augustus)
Caligula (Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus)
Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus)
Nero (Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus)
Galba (Servius Galba Caesar Augustus)
Otho (Marcus Otho Caesar Augustus)
Vitellius (Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Augustus)
Vespasianus (Caesar Vespasianus Augustus)
Titus (Titus Caesar Vespasianus Augustus)
Domitianus (Caesar Domitianus Augustus)
Nerva (Nerva Caesar Augustus)
Trajanus (Caesar Nerva Traianus Augustus)
Hadrianus (Caesar Traianus Hadrianus Augustus)
Antoninus Pius (Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius)
Marcus Aurelius (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus)
Lucius Verus (Lucius Aurelius Verus)
Commodus (Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus)
Pertinax (Publius Helvius Pertinax)
Didius Julianus (Marcus Didius Severus Julianus)
Septimius Severus (Lucius Septimius Severus Pertinax)
Caracalla (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus)
Geta (Publius Septimius Geta)
Macrinus (Marcus Opellius Severus Macrinus)
Diadumenianus (Marcus Opellius Antoninus Diadumenianus)
Elagabalus (Marcus Aurelius Antoninus)
Severus Alexander (Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander)
Maximinus Thrax (Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus)
Gordianus I (Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus)
Gordianus II (Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus)
Pupienus (Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus)
Balbinus (Decimus Caelius Calvinus Balbinus)
Gordianus III (Marcus Antonius Gordianus)
Philippus (Marcus Julius Philippus)
Philippus II (Marcus Julius Severus Philippus)
Decius (Gaius Messius Quintus Traianus Decius)
Herennius Etruscus (Quintus Herennius Etruscus Messius Decius)
Hostilianus (Gaius Valens Hostilianus Messius Quintus)
Trebonianus Gallus (Gaius Vibius Trebonianus Gallus)
Volusianus (Gaius Vibius Afinius Gallus Veldumnianus Volusianus)
Aemilianus (Marcus Aemilius Aemilianus)
Valerianus (Publius Licinius Valerianus)
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus)
Saloninus (Publius Licinius Cornelius Saloninus Valerianus)
Claudius Gothicus (Marcus Aurelius Claudius)
Quintillus (Marcus Aurelius Claudius Quintillus)
Aurelianus (Lucius Domitius Aurelianus)
Tacitus (Marcus Claudius Tacitus)
Florianus (Marcus Annius Florianus)
Probus (Marcus Aurelius Probus)
Carus (Marcus Aurelius Carus)
Carinus (Marcus Aurelius Carinus)
Numerianus (Marcus Aurelius Numerianus)
Diocletianus (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus)
Maximianus (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus)
Galerius (Galerius Valerius Maximianus)
Constantius I (Flavius Valerius Constantius)
Constantinus I (Flavius Valerius Constantinus)
Severus (Flavius Valerius Severus)
Maxentius (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius)
Licinius (Valerius Licinianus Licinius)
Maximinus Daza (Galerius Valerius Maximinus)
Valerius Valens (Aurelius Valerius Valens)
Martinianus (Sextus Marcius Martinianus)
Constantinus II (Flavius Claudius Constantinus)
Constantius II (Flavius Julius Constantius)
Constans (Flavius Julius Constans)
Vetranio (Flavius Claudius Julianus)
Jovianus (Flavius Jovianus)
Valentinianus I (Valentinianus)
Valentinianus II
Theodosius I
Magnus Maximus
Victor (Flavius Victor)
Constantinus III (Flavius Claudius Constantinus)
Constans II
Constantius III
Valentinianus III (Placidus Valentinianus)
Petronius Maximus
Avitus (Eparchius Avitus)
Majorianus (Julius Valerius Maiorianus)
Libius Severus
Anthemius (Procopius Anthemius)
Olybrius (Anicius Olybrius)
Julius Nepos
Romulus Augustus
Papa Sanctus Simplicius


Clement VI of Rome (title reverted to source; in succession from St. Peter the Apostle & succeeded by Papa Innocent VI; continued in primary succession above.)
Yuri II, King of Ruthenia
Andrew I, King of Ruthenia and Lev II, King of Ruthenia (joint rule)
Yuri I, King of Ruthenia, Grand Prince of Kiev
Lev I, King of Ruthenia, Grand Prince of Kiev
Danilo I Romanovich, King of Ruthenia (Russia) (via Rome), Grand Prince of Kiev
Roman the Great, Tsar and Autocrat of All Rus’ (via Constantinople)

In Memoriam Bailey McCune of Coll-Earn, Baron of Elphinstone, Knight Grand Cross of the Pontifical Order of the Eagle

Gen. McCune in the uniform of the
Military Society of the Wild Geese

Lt. Gen. The Much Honoured Bailey Bruce McCune of Coll-Earn
Baron of Elphinstone (Scotland)
Knight Grand Cross of the Pontifical Order of the Eagle
1931 - 2014

H.H. the Bishop of Rome-Ruthenia (left) and
the Baron of Elphinstone (right) at the Elphinstone
baronial hall at the baron's Arabian horse farm in California

Personal note from the Baron of Elphinstone to
H.H. Bishop Rutherford I thanking him for a
requiem mass for the late Baroness.
Original held in the Stephenian Archives.

Enclosure card of the Baron of Elphinstone with
personal note to H.H. Bishop Rutherford I.
Original held in the Stephenian Archives.


Revised First Edition of "Journey of Faith"

Bishop Rutherford with the revised first edition English and Russian language versions of his book "Journey of Faith," which details the history of the United Roman-Ruthenian Church, both ancient and through the last 15 years.