Pope Saint Pius IX - Predecessor of the Catholicate

Pope Saint Pius IX

Pope Saint Pius IX was born Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti in 1792. He reigned as Bishop of Rome from 1846 to 1878. This constitutes the longest known papal reign. He defined the dogma of the Immaculate Conception in 1854, which simply stated a long-held belief that the Blessed Virgin Mary Theotokos was conceived without original sin. He also formalised the dogma of the long-held belief in papal infallibility. In 1870, he permanently lost direct/de facto reign over the Stato Pontificio to the conquering Kingdom of Italy. Pope St. John Paul II beatified him in 2000, and the Florentine-Roman Papa Rutherford I canonised him in 2021.